# Managerial Accounting

## Target Profit

Next, total fixed expenses are subtracted to get operating income . Breakeven analysis shows the effect of increased investments in fixed assets that lower variable costs but increase fixed costs. “Variable costs,” which increase directly in proportion to the level of sales in dollars or units sold. The margin of safety is volume of sales that the company is selling above the break-even point. Similarly, the break-even point in dollars is the amount of sales the company must generate to cover all production costs . In this equation, the variable costs are stated as a percent of sales. If a unit has a \$3.00 selling price and variable costs of \$1.80, variable costs as a percent of sales is 60% (\$1.80 ÷ \$3.00). Using fixed costs of \$300,000, the break‐even equation is shown below.

It is more convenient to use the single symbol S for sales dollars, rather than TR for total revenue. We can derive the break-even equation by starting with the fact that total revenue equals total cost volume profit definition cost at the break-even point. Then the equation is restated in terms of unit sales, unit prices and unit cost and then rearranged into the more convenient format presented in Equation 1.

The Sandlot Cap Company produces baseball caps in two categories referred to as regular logo and special logo. Caps in the regular logo category are high volume products that display familiar names of universities and professional sports teams. Caps in the special design category are typically created for a particular customer to promote special events such as the Olympics, or the opening of a unique museum exhibit. For convenience we will refer to the regular logo caps as product X1 and the special logo caps as product X2.

There are two break-even points where total revenue and total cost are equal. The theoretical profit function intersects the horizonal axis at the two break-even points and reaches a maximum level at the point where the vertical distance between TR and TC is the greatest. In the linear model the company maximizes profit where production and sales are at maximum capacity.

After the breakeven point there are no more fixed costs to be covered and all of the contribution goes towards making profits grow. As sales revenues grow https://accounting-services.net/ from zero, the contribution also grows until it just covers the fixed costs. This is the breakeven point where neither profits nor losses are made.

Changes in sales mix can cause interesting variation in profits. A shift in sales mix from high margin items to low margin items can cause profits to decrease even though total sales may increase. Conversely, a shift in sales mix from low margin items to high margin items can cause reverse effect-total profit may increase even though total sales decrease. It is one thing to achieve a particular sales volume; it is quite a different thing to sell most profitable mix of products. In this example, although the total cost line increases in production, it does not pass through the origin because there is a fixed cost component.

## What Are The Assumptions Of Cvp Analysis?

Remember that there are additional variable costs incurred every time an additional unit is sold, and these costs reduce the extra revenues when calculating income. CVP analysis is only reliable if costs are fixed within a specified production level. All units produced are assumed to be sold, and all fixed costs must be stable in a CVP analysis.

In some cases, this assumption may not be found true. For instance, if a business firm sells more units, the variable costs per unit may decrease due to more operating efficiencies in the factory. One can think of contribution as “the marginal contribution of a unit to the profit”, or “contribution towards offsetting fixed costs”. Chapter 18 introduces concepts relating to cost-volume-profit analysis. CVP helps one assess business profitability and growth. Variable costs increase in a linear fashion as production rises, while fixed costs are unaffected. These observations only hold over a relevant range of activity.

The work-in-progress is valued at factory cost while stock of finished goods is valued at office cost. Numerous other examples can be given to show that the term “cost” does not mean the same thing under all circumstances and for all purposes. Many items of cost of production are handled in an optional manner which may give different costs for the same product or job without going against the accepted principles of cost accounting. Its amount varies in accordance with the method of depreciation being used. However, endeavour should be, as far as possible, to obtain an accurate cost of a product or service. The charts can in fact be adjusted to cope with non-linear variable costs or steps in fixed costs but too many changes in behaviour patterns can make the charts very cluttered and difficult to use. The same lines for total cost and sales revenue are shown so the breakeven point and profit can be read off in the same way as with a conventional chart.

the ratio of total variable cost to sales or of unit variable cost to price. Variable cost ratio is also computed as 1 (100%) minus the contribution margin ratio. It represents the percentage cost volume profit definition of each sales dollar used to cover variable cost. Costs are separated into fixed and variable categories. First, total variable cost is subtracted from sales to get the contribution margin.

Contribution margin is sales minus variable expenses. Thus, if a business has \$50,000 of fixed costs per month, and the average contribution margin of a product is \$50, then the necessary unit volume to reach a breakeven sales level is 1,000 units. The contribution margin is sales revenue minus all variable costs. It may be calculated using dollars or on a per unit cost volume profit definition basis. Assuming the company sold 250,000 units during the year, the per unit sales price is \$3 and the total variable cost per unit is \$1.80. It can be calculated using either the contribution margin in dollars or the contribution margin per unit. To calculate the contribution margin ratio, the contribution margin is divided by the sales or revenues amount.

The gross profit margin is the difference between sales and cost of goods sold. Cost of goods sold includes all costs — fixed costs and variable costs. The contribution margin only considers variable costs.

### What is profit volume ratio?

Profit-volume ratio indicates the relationship between contribution and sales and is usually expressed in percentage. Since, in the short-term, fixed cost does not change, the profit-volume ratio also measures the rate of change of profit due to change in the volume of sales.

The break‐even point in sales dollars of \$750,000 is calculated by dividing total fixed costs of \$300,000 by the contribution margin ratio of 40%. When the volume of production changes, the changes of fixed and variable costs may change for both total costs and per-unit costs. Variable costs are the costs that change based on the volume of production. The variable costs change as a result of change in the quantity of the activity base. Examples of variable costs include direct labor and raw materials.

To calculate Y we must use the unit mix ratios as weights to reflect the importance of each product in the price. Solving Equation 6 provides the amount of contribution margin above the break-even point and this amount represents the net income before taxes. Because after the total fixed costs have been covered, additional contribution margin represents the before tax profit. Before the fixed cost have been covered the additional contribution needed represents the before tax loss. A family of total cost functions for the conventional linear model is presented in Figure 11-13. The total fixed cost function is represented by a horizontal line because of assumption three which eliminates the possibility of a non-output related change in fixed costs during the planning period. No changes in the company’s fixed factors of production can occur.

### What are the types of cost analysis?

Top 13 Types of Cost in Cost Concept AnalysisType of Cost # 1. Private Cost:
Type of Cost # 2. Actual Cost and Opportunity Cost:
Type of Cost # 3. Past Costs and Future Costs:
Type of Cost # 4. Explicit Cost and Implicit Cost:
Type of Cost # 5. Incremental Costs or (Differential Costs) and Sunk Costs:
Type of Cost # 6.
Type of Cost # 7.
Type of Cost # 8.
More items

## Understanding Contribution Margins

With a lower level of operating leverage, the business shows less growth in profits as sales rise, but faces less risk of loss as sales decline. There is obviously more involved than simply trying to determine the breakeven point. This is the totally variable cost per unit sold, which is usually just the amount of direct materials and the sales commission associated with a unit sale. Nearly all other expenses do not vary with sales volume, and so are considered fixed costs.

Using the data from the previous example, what level of sales would be required if the company wanted \$60,000 of income? The \$60,000 of income required is called the targeted income. The required sales level is \$900,000 and the required number of units is 300,000. Why is the answer \$900,000 instead of \$810,000 (\$750,000 [break‐even sales] plus \$60,000)?

The contribution margin represents the amount of income or profit the company made before deducting its fixed costs. Said another way, it is the amount of sales dollars available to cover fixed costs.

Thus, average revenue will be decreasing, rather than constant. The slope of the total revenue function (see Figure 11-2) is equal to the cost volume profit definition sales price. When the company sells one additional unit, total revenue increases by an amount equal to the sales price of that unit.

A comparable family of total cost functions for the theoretical economic model appears in Figure 11-14. The total variable cost and total cost functions increase at a decreasing rate at first in response to increasing productivity. When the inputs are becoming more productive, additional outputs cost less per unit because they require less input. The cost may be factory cost, office cost, cost of sales and even an item of expense. For example, prime cost includes expenditure on direct materials, direct labour and direct expenses. Money spent on materials is termed as cost of materials just like money spent on labour is called cost of labour and so on. Thus, the use of term cost without understanding the circumstances can be misleading.

## What Is Cost

• This is a key concept because it shows management that the revenue from a project will be able to cover all the costs associated with it.
• Although the CVP model may be useful for some short term forecasting and optimization decisions, it is misleading for decisions such as product introduction, product pricing, product mix and make versus buy.
• They also use cost volume profit analysis to calculate the break-even point in production processes and sales.
• Thebreak-even pointis drawn on the CVP graph where the sales, fixed costs, and variable costs’ lines all intersect.

The variable cost component is \$10 per unit of output. Hence, at a production level of 500 units, the total electric cost is \$8,000 [\$3,000 + (\$10 x 500)].

Variable costs, on the other hand, change with the levels of production. These costs include materials and labor that go into each unit produced. For example, a bike factory would classify bicycle tire costs as a variable cost. The more units produced, the more tire costs increase. Fixed costs are the costs that do not change based on the volume of production. Sometimes when there is a significant change in the level of production these costs may change, but mostly they stay the same for a given volume of production. Examples of fixed costs include, rent, insurance, administrative salaries, taxes, etc.